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Asma severa

O que é? Qual é o tratamento?

O ar entra e sai pelos pulmões através das vias respiratórias, que têm paredes cercadas por um tecido muscular liso. Pessoas com asma têm mais tecido muscular liso nas vias respiratórias em comparação com aquelas que não sofrem desta doença. Então, uma crise asmática é caracterizada pela inflamação e constrição desse músculo que está ao redor das vias respiratórias nos pulmões, estreitando-as e impedindo que o ar passe normalmente.

Quais são os sintomas?

Quem estiver sofrendo uma crise asmática pode sentir pressão no peito, ficar ofegante e tossir, além de ter dificuldade para respirar. A asma pode ser imprevisível e limitar muitos aspectos da vida de uma pessoa, desde a atividade física até o trabalho, a escola ou o tempo para desfrutar com os amigos e a família.

Ao identificar esses sintomas, consulte seu médico.

Quais são as causas?

Não é claro o que  provoca a asma. Segundo as pesquisas, existem diversos fatores genéticos, ambientais e até psicológicos que interagem para causar essa patologia, que geralmente aparece na infância. Pode haver uma tendência hereditária, ou inclusive o contato com determinadas substâncias que produzem alergias nos primeiros meses ou anos de vida. Além disso, existem elementos irritantes no ar (por exemplo, a fumaça de tabaco ou de chaminés industriais) que podem provocar fortes reações nas vias respiratórias.

Como é realizado o diagnóstico?

Existem diversos exames para chegar a um diagnóstico correto.

Em primeiro lugar, o médico ausculta o peito para ouvir os sons respiratórios e procura indícios de asma ou alergias como chiados, congestão nasal ou inflamação das vias respiratórias nasais.

Também podem ser realizados exames como a espirometria, que mede o ar que pode entrar e sair dos pulmões, para observar como estão funcionando. Outra possibilidade é pedir que seja feito um exame para detectar alergias.

Em que consiste o tratamento?

Os remédios para tratar a asma a curto prazo fornecem um alívio temporário ao relaxar o músculo das vias respiratórias, para evitar que estas sejam obstruídas durante uma crise, mas nem sempre funcionam em pessoas com asma grave.

Um novo foco para o tratamento desse problema é a termoplastia bronquial, um procedimento ambulatório que utiliza um calor suave para reduzir o excesso do tecido do músculo liso nas vias respiratórias. Dessa maneira, as vias sofrem menos opressão, respirar torna-se bem mais fácil e existe uma baixa probabilidade de se sofrer uma crise asmática. Além do mais, reduz-se a necessidade de realizar um tratamento oral com esteroides, os quais possuem efeitos colaterais.

A termoplastia bronquial não substitui os remédios para tratar a asma. Em troca, trabalha em conjunto com esses remédios para oferecer uma maior proteção a longo prazo, contra os sintomas de asma aguda. Em um exame clínico, 79% dos pacientes com asma aguda, tratados com este procedimento, informaram melhorias importantes em sua qualidade de vida relacionada com a asma.

Antes de iniciar o tratamento, consultar sempre um médico.

Prevenção  

A asma não pode ser prevenida, mas se aparecerem indicadores na infância podem ser tomadas medidas para controlar a doença e prevenir os sintomas. Por exemplo, identificar e tratar de evitar as causas da asma (como as substâncias alergênicas) e fazer exames periodicamente.