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Câncer de cólon

O que é? Qual é o tratamento?

O câncer de cólon aparece no cólon ou no reto. A maioria das vezes se desenvolve primeiro como pólipos colorretais, que são crescimentos anormais dentro do cólon que, mais tarde, podem converter-se em pólipos cancerígenos. Podem ser detectados através de uma análise de rotina e serem extraídos antes que desenvolvam um câncer.

Quais são as causas?

Não existe uma causa conhecida para o câncer colorretal. Porém, aqueles que possuem antecedentes familiares de pólipos no cólon ou câncer colorretal presentam maiores riscos de desenvolver a doença. Este risco aumenta depois dos 50 anos e naquelas pessoas que foram diagnosticadas com colite ulcerosa, doença de Crohn ou determinadas doenças genéticas. Também tem maior prevalência em homens e mulheres de raça negra, indígenas norte-americanos, nativos do Alasca e descendentes de judeus da Europa Oriental (judeus asquenazes).

Também podem adquirir a doença os que tiveram um estilo de vida pouco saudável. Por exemplo: uma alimentação com alto conteúdo em calorias e baixo conteúdo de fibras, consumo de álcool, tabaco, falta de exercício regular e a não ingestão de frutas e vegetais.

Quais são os sintomas?

Em geral, durante as primeiras fases do câncer colorretal, os indivíduos não apresentam sintomas, mas pode surgir sangue (muito escuro ou vermelho brilhante) na matéria fecal, dor persistente de estômago, dor ou espasmo abdominal e também perda de peso sem causa aparente.

Ao identificar esses sintomas, consulte seu médico.

Como é realizado o diagnóstico?

Mais de 90% dos casos de câncer colorretal podem ser prevenidos com análise de rotina.

A colonoscopia é o tipo de análise mais completo para detectar esta doença porque permite aos médicos identificar e remover os pólipos pré-cancerígenos durante o tratamento.

Para realizá-la, o paciente recebe medicação para ser sedado e não sentir dor. Durante o exame, o médico observa todo o intestino grosso, através de um
tubo longo e flexível (endoscópio) que mostra as imagens em um monitor. Pelo endoscópio são introduzidos dispositivos que podem extirpar os pólipos de
forma pouco invasiva.

Outras opções para o diagnóstico são a realização de radiografias do intestino grosso, uma tomografia computada e uma análise de laboratório da matéria fecal, para observar se existe sangue nas fezes.

Qual é o tratamento?

Depois de verificar a existência de pólipos no cólon, através de uma colonoscopia, estes podem ser extraídos na mesma intervenção. O tecido extraído é enviado para sua análise patológica para determinar se é cancerígeno. Nesse caso, o médico determinará se deve realizar um tratamento específico.

De acordo com o resultado, o médico indicará se deve repetir a colonoscopia e com que frequência, de acordo com o número e o tamanho dos pólipos removidos, e o tipo de tecido destes.

Ao identificar esses sintomas, consulte seu médico.

Prevenção  

Para prevenir esta patologia é aconselhável realizar os exames médicos que permitam uma detecção precoce e extrair os pólipos que apareçam. Além disso, é recomendada uma dieta com baixa ingestão de gorduras e rica em fibras, um baixo consumo de álcool, não fumar e fazer exercícios regularmente.