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Hipertensão arterial

O que é? Qual é o tratamento?

A hipertensão ou tensão arterial alta é uma doença crônica, na qual a pressão sanguínea nas artérias é maior que a normal. Esta doença pode ser uma carga adicional para o coração e o sistema circulatório, que devem se esforçar mais para que o sangue circule. Por sua vez, é um fator de risco importante no surgimento de várias doenças cardiovasculares, como a arteriopatia coronária, insuficiência cardíaca, insuficiência renal, ictus ou AVC (Acidente Vascular Cerebral, que causa anomalias na função neurológica e dura mais de 24 horas) e a vasculopatia periférica. Calcula-se que a hipertensão é a causa de 54% de todos os casos de AVC e de 47% de todos os casos de cardiopatia isquêmica no mundo inteiro, e que mais de um bilhão de pessoas no mundo todo sofrem de hipertensão arterial. Afeta mais de um quarto da população mundial adulta e é a principal causa atribuível de morte no mundo.

Quais são as causas?

Muitos fatores podem afetar a pressão arterial, como a quantidade de água e sal que o organismo possui, o estado dos rins, o sistema nervoso ou os vasos sanguíneos, níveis hormonais e idade avançada. Possuem um risco mais alto de sofrer hipertensão arterial aquelas pessoas obesas, que têm um alto nível de estresse, tomam muito álcool, consomem muito sal na dieta, têm antecedentes familiares de hipertensão arterial, fumam, são diabéticas, não realizam atividade física e não consomem suficiente potássio. Na maioria das vezes, nenhuma causa de pressão arterial alta é identificada, o qual é chamado de hipertensão essencial.

Quais são os sintomas?

Não apresentam sintomas durante a maior parte do tempo. A maioria das pessoas detecta que sofre de hipertensão arterial quando vai ao médico ou mede a pressão em outro lugar. Por não existirem sintomas, as pessoas podem desenvolver cardiopatias e problemas renais, sem saber que sofrem de hipertensão arterial.

Ao identificar esses sintomas, consulte seu médico.”

Como é realizado o diagnóstico?

Diagnostica-se com o exame de pressão arterial, que deve ser realizado várias vezes para ter-se certeza de que os resultados estejam corretos. Se uma pessoa tiver pressão arterial de 140/90 ou mais durante algum tempo, provavelmente o médico lhe diagnostique pressão arterial alta. E se tiver diabete ou doença renal crônica e um valor de mais de 130/80 também é considerado que sofre de pressão arterial alta. Deve-se notar que os intervalos que indicam pressão arterial alta em crianças são diferentes. Os bebês recém-nascidos geralmente têm baixa pressão arterial, e os jovens no final da adolescência têm valores bem parecidos aos dos adultos, porque a pressão arterial normalmente aumenta com a idade e o tamanho corporal. Para saber se uma criança sofre de pressão arterial alta, o médico compara a pressão arterial da criança com a média dos valores de acordo à sua idade, seu sexo e sua altura.

Em que consiste o tratamento?

Para tratar a pressão arterial alta é aconselhável mudar o estilo de vida, e também tomar remédios. A maioria dos pacientes precisa de tratamento durante a vida toda. É importante cumprir o plano, pois isso pode prevenir ou retardar os problemas relacionados com esta patologia, e permitir que a pessoa viva e permaneça ativa por mais tempo. Os remédios receitados pelo médico são produzidos para funcionar de diversas formas, e é possível que se precise de vários remédios para alcançar a pressão arterial ideal. Embora um tratamento médico possa dar resultado para muitos pacientes, outros não conseguem alcançar seu objetivo de pressão arterial. Nesses casos, a pressão permanece alta e não controlada, colocando-os em um alto e inaceitável risco de sofrer um episódio cardiovascular grave como um enfarte ou AVC. Se você for um desses pacientes, junto com seu médico podem procurar outras alternativas, como a denervação renal.

Antes de iniciar o tratamento, consultar sempre um médico.

Em que consiste a denervação renal?

Uma das principais funções dos rins é regular a pressão arterial, e descobriu-se que a hiperatividade dos nervos que estão em torno dos vasos sanguíneos que chegam até os rins (artérias renais) são um fator importante para a hipertensão. A terapia de denervação renal é um procedimento pouco invasivo que utiliza terapia no tecido que está em torno das artérias renais, para interromper a hiperatividade desses nervos.

Prevenção  

Para ajudar a controlar a pressão arterial, é aconselhável: consumir uma alimentação cardio-saudável, que inclua potássio e fibra; beber bastante água; fazer exercício regularmente; não fumar; reduzir o consumo de álcool e de sal; controlar o estresse e manter um peso corporal saudável.