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Doença vascular periférica

O que é? Qual é o tratamento?

A Doença Vascular Periférica (EVP) afeta os vasos sanguíneos fora do coração. É um grave problema circulatório, que afeta as artérias que transportam o sangue para os braços e as pernas. Esta patologia pode aumentar o risco de sofrer um ataque cardíaco. Aproximadamente, um terço dos pacientes com doença vascular periférica, que sofreram um ataque cardíaco ou AVC, faleceram por causa do mesmo. Além disso, se a doença vascular periférica não for tratada, os sintomas podem piorar.

Quais são as causas?

A doença vascular periférica ocorre quando as artérias se tornam estreitas, devido à acumulação de placa a partir do colesterol, dos depósitos de caloria, do cálcio e de outras substâncias no sangue. As artérias obstruídas podem evitar que o sangue rico em oxigênio chegue até os músculos quando eles mais precisam dele, e essa falta de oxigênio. provoca dor. Deslocar-se pode ser muito difícil, provocando lesões graves, seguidas de infecções que resultam na perda de um membro.

Quais são os fatores de risco?

Os que têm mais possibilidades de sofrer essa doença são as pessoas maiores de 50 anos com hipertensão arterial, colesterol alto, diabete ou que sofreram um AVC (Acidente Vascular Cerebral, que causa anomalias na função neurológica e tenha durado mais de 24 horas). Outros fatores de risco podem ser: comer alimentos gordurosos, não fazer exercício, fumar, sofrer de estresse e/ou de excesso de peso. Também existem outros fatores de risco que não podem ser evitados, tal como a menopausa, o envelhecimento ou os antecedentes familiares de doenças cardíacas.

Quais são os sintomas?

Um dos sintomas clássicos da EVP é o adormecimento e câimbras nas pernas, quadris ou nádegas ao fazer exercício ou simplesmente ao caminhar. Essa dor desaparece quando se descansa, um sintoma denominado claudicação intermitente. Outros sinais são o adormecimento ou formigamento nas pernas, pés ou dedos do pé, mudanças na cor da pele (pálida, azulada ou avermelhada), pele fria (por exemplo, nas pernas, pés, braços ou mãos), impotência e infecções/úlceras que não se curam. Os sintomas geralmente aparecem na parte do corpo onde as artérias estão obstruídas. Porém, existem pessoas que sofrem da doença vascular periférica e não sentem nenhum sintoma, por isso, é importante estar ciente do risco.

Ao identificar esses sintomas, consulte seu médico.

Como é realizado o diagnóstico?

O exame mais comum para detectar a doença vascular periférica é o índice tornozelo-braço, que compara a pressão sanguínea nas pernas e nos braços através de um bracelete. Se as pressões forem diferentes, poderia significar a existência de doença vascular periférica e, nesse caso, podem ser realizados outros exames para determinar com segurança a patologia.

Em que consiste o tratamento?

Este depende da gravidade do quadro. Pode-se realizar exercícios ou tomar remédios, e também existem várias opções para que o sangue volte a fluir livremente através das artérias afetadas. Entre elas:

  • Angioplastia: consiste em passar um cateter com um pequeno balão vazio em um extremo, através da artéria obstruída. Depois de ter sido inflado, o balão comprimirá a placa contra as paredes da artéria.
  • Implante de stent: durante uma angioplastia, pode ser colocado um tubo pequeno com malha de metal na artéria, denominado stent, para ajudar a mantê-la aberta.
  • Arteriectomia: utiliza-se um cateter especial para cortar e retirar a placa das artérias.
  • Endarterectomia: utiliza-se um cateter especial para abrir os vasos sanguíneos obstruídos, através da remoção da placa acumulada na parede interior das artérias.
  • By Pass: toma-se um vaso sanguíneo saudável de outra parte do corpo, ou um pequeno tubo artificial, e este é utilizado para criar um desvio para que possibilite que o sangue flua, evitando a parte obstruída da artéria.

Antes de iniciar o tratamento, consultar sempre um médico.

Prevenção  

A detecção precoce desta doença pode ser muito vantajosa. Para preveni-la, é aconselhável não fumar, ter uma dieta saudável de baixo colesterol e fazer exercício.